Lecturer: Chris Zevenbergen / New approaches towards adaptive urban planning in the context of urban flood risk management.
Lecture 1: Urban flood risk management
Overall description. Floods have a significant impact on cities. Since the beginning of civilization, people have had to cope with them and, if possible, to adapt to them. As a consequence, the various human civilizations have observed the effect of such natural phenomena and have tried to understand the underlying causes. Since the latter half of the twentieth century urban flood-risk management has evolved as a discipline in its own right. As it is currently practiced this involves a very broad range of expertise, corresponding to the different scientific domains including physics, biology, geographical science and of course civil and other branches of engineering. It increasingly draws in contributions from the social sciences, planning and politics.
Urban Flood Management is not about preventing any flooding or even minimizing flood losses. The absolute prevention of flooding is an impossible task. Rather Urban Flood Management is about maximizing and maintaining the performance of the city as a whole. Urban Flood Management is also about looking for opportunities and solutions that add to the welfare of a society in such a way that the sum of social and economic benefits outweighs the potential costs.
The students should be able to understand the dominant causes of urban flooding and how to respond to it.
Lecture 2: Flood resilience
Overall description. Resilience is widely used in flood risk management policies, but still largely conceptually. Despite notable advances in social-ecological sciences and numerous attempts to make it operational, there is still a limited number of empirical and quantitative case studies to demonstrate it’s practical relevance in flood risk management. Nevertheless, the concept of resilience (as opposed to resistance) represents a new way of thinking about flood disaster mitigation embracing the philosophy that as a society we should learn to live with floods and to manage flood risk and not seek to avoid it. Hence, resilient flood risk strategies aim at reducing impacts through prevention and preparedness spanning a wide range of flood probabilities (from regular to rare flood events).
Flood risk management is increasingly challenged to deal with uncertainty and conflicting options. In the past decades flood risk management has focused primarily on the implementation of structural engineering solutions, favoring large-scale infrastructure systems, such as flood embankments and channelization. In the recent past, however, major flood disasters have acted as catalysts for changing flood risk management policies: there has been a shift towards management of the whole flooding system in an integrated and adaptive way, recognizing associated (deep) uncertainties and taking into account all of the potential interventions that may alter flood risks This lecture will address the major features of this new flood resilience approach : striving towards an appropriate balance between flood protection, prevention and preparedness, both now and into the future.
At the end of these two lectures the students should be able to understand the application of the concept of resilience.
The lectures will introduce the topic of urban resilience form the climate issues to the community resilience.
The new tools for urban planning that can help with the adaptation processes will be presented and discusses. As the practical application of the knowledge learnt during the lectures the short project task will be given to the students to make the teaching more interactive. The students will get the individual advices and will present their work on the special final meeting which will allow to formulate arguments pro and cons proposed solutions.
This is meant to teach students how to incorporate the resilient solutions into the urban planning practices.
The lecture will start with a general introduction of the current European landscape of spatial planning (including planning models, EU initiatives and ECTP), followed by an exploring journey, looking for the main territorial challenges ahead.
How can we relate local, regional and national capacities within the context of a European and Global spatial condition and rethink how to plan, manage and live in 21st century urban environments.
The economic geography is changing, accompanied by an increasing fragmentation which has a social, cultural and political dimension. Growing spatial interdependencies go hand in hand with so called places that do not matter.
Digital flows induce new types of territorialities, whereas political decision making structures are still very traditionally based on administrative units.
The lecture tries to generate a debate on how to deal as spatial planners with these challenges. Special attention will be given to the current European policy initiatives on the Territorial agenda and the Urban agenda.
A more detailed presentation and discussion on the ECTP concludes the session.
(1) Waterfront Development and Land Value Capture Applications (2 hrs).
As the economic base of cities has changed overtime, the industrial or economic land uses in many waterfronts have become obsolete. This has led for the need to redevelop waterfront land for a wide variety or public and private purposes. In order to undertake this redevelopment in the best possible way, careful planning is required by government. In some cases, there are a several levels of government that have interests in these lands and consequently may be involved in the redevelopment process. Consequently, the initiative requires joint initiatives or agencies.
The objective of this lecture is to provide insight into the principles and practice of waterfront development by providing some examples and cases of recent redevelopment of waterfronts in various jurisdictions in North America and Europe.
The will be focus will be on how the waterfront development can be used or provide an opportunity to meet persistent planning objectives in the specific jurisdiction like the need for parkland and affordable housing, as well as employment opportunities, i.e. building complete communities.
As a crucial part of any redevelopment is the financing of infrastructure and social amenities, there will also be a focus on how various land value capture tools may be used to help fund the infrastructure required for the development and other planning needs/objectives such as affordable housing.
At the end of the lecture students should have an understanding of the components and approaches to waterfront redevelopment, and how land value capture tools may be used to help finance public infrastructure and objectives.
(2) Planning in North America (1 hr).